played by the intestinal microbiota, there is also a great deal of latitudinal variation in the microbiota composition ( Fig. The intestinal epithelium is separated from the lumen by a thick and physicochemically complex mucus layer. The microbiota present in the intestinal lumen dif- fers signiﬁcantly from the microbiota attached and em-. The microbiota offers many benefits to the host, through a range of physiological functions such as strengthening gut integrity or shaping the intestinal epithelium, harvesting energy, protecting against pathogens and regulating host immunity. PDF ISBNISSNdoi: 10. The microbiota co- evolves with and plays an important role in the normal functioning of. Hence, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in many human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and celiac disease. Content may be subject to copyright. to as gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is highly dynamic and exhibits temporal ( age) and spatial ( along and across the length of the gut) variations. Furthermore, the intestinal microbial composition is responsive to host genetics, diet, ingested drugs, and a wide number of other environmental factors. What is the gut microbiota? What are the benefits of the microbiota to the host?